Technical articles

A Review of Filter Press Basics Versus Alternative Technologies

PharmaChem

Filtration experts, over the years, have discussed and debated filter presses and have indicated that soon they would be a thing of the past; the last filter press would be replaced by more modern equipment. Given that filter presses were amongst the oldest mechanical dewatering devices, this was a fairly plausible suggestion. However, now, almost half a century later, any chemical engineering exhibition shows that filter presses are alive and well and are going to be around for years to come. True, they look different from the ones in the 1950’s, but essentially they are still the same device. Their continued presence is a tribute to the filter press manufacturers who embraced new materials and upgraded the mechanics and configurations. However, the basics are still the same and much of the issues surrounding filter presses remain valid.

Published in: PharmaChem - Mai 2008 - 33
PDF (323 KB)
A Review of Filter Press Basics Versus Alternative Technologies
Mai 2008 - 33
May 2008

Size: 323 KB

A Review of Filter Press Basics Versus Alternative Batch or Continuous Technologies

BHS-Filtration Inc.

The range of liquid/solid separation equipment is very large and without an intimate knowledge it can be confusing and even illogical, the main reason being that there are only two basic principles of liquid/solid separation. This means that equipment which an independent expert would not necessarily chose first can still be made to work, albeit with poor efficiency. This implies that you should be extra careful with suppliers who offer only one type of equipment, as it may well be that although it can be made to work, it may not be the best choice!

Published in: BHS-Filtration Inc. - 2008
PDF (384 KB)
A Review of Filter Press Basics Versus Alternative Batch or Continuous Technologies
2008
March 2008

Size: 384 KB

A Treatise of Filter Cake Washing Mechanisms In Pressure and Vacuum Filtration Systems

BHS-Filtration Inc.

During many chemical and pharmaceutical process operations, cake washing is required since no filter system can remove all of the mother liquor by pressure or vacuum dewatering only. The need for cake washing to produce a “clean cake” for further processing, drying or disposal can be for several reasons including the removal of the mother liquor, exchange of solvents, dissolution of soluble components and the displacement of insoluble contaminants.
The topic of “how to most efficiently wash the cake” is one that many process engineers struggle with when considering the various techniques available to meet the economic, production and quality requirements of the operation. Chemical engineering textbooks are notoriously shy on the subject and such information that is available is frequently lost in a host of theoretical equations. This article introduces pragmatism into cake washing theory and will help to guide engineers during their decision-making processes.

Published in: BHS-Filtration Inc. - December 2007
PDF (462 KB)
A Treatise of Filter Cake Washing Mechanisms In Pressure and Vacuum Filtration Systems
December 2007
December 2007

Size: 462 KB

Thin-cake filtration theory

BHS-Filtration Inc.

In most industrial solid-liquid separation applications, the process steps of filtration, washing and dewatering (drying) are conducted on one filter. This paper describes the thin-cake filtration theory for these operations.

Published in: BHS-Filtration Inc. - September 2007
PDF (338 KB)
Thin-cake filtration theory
September 2007
September 2007

Size: 338 KB

Manufacturing of dry mortar sands

ZKG INTERNATIONAL

The preferred machines for the manufacturing of dry mortar sands are impact mills with a horizontal shaft, hammer mills and rotor impact mills with a vertical shaft. Impact mills can comminute feed material sized up to 120 mm and are therefore suitable for use as a primary crusher. However, they cannot process oversize particles up to 4 mm. Hammer mills with a bar grid produce a significantly higher portion of undersize material up to 0.1 mm (socalled ⌠filler) and should therefore only be used in applications where this is explicitly desired. Rotor impact mills can be used both as primary crushers for feed materials sized up to 56 mm and as secondary crushers for off-spec particle sizes up to4 mm.

Published in: ZKG INTERNATIONAL - No. 9-2007 (Volume 60)
PDF (327 KB)
Manufacturing of dry mortar sands
No. 9-2007 (Volume 60)
September 2007

Size: 327 KB

Basic principles to plan plants for dry mix mortars

ZKG INTERNATIONAL

The use of dry mix mortars has strongly increased all over the world during the last 15 years. Their advantages, i. e. adaptation of the mix formula to the particular operational application, the possibility of minimizing the amounts used, excellent workability, constant quality, quicker completion of the building and less building rubbish, compensate for the disadvantage of the higher price in every way. If natural sand is not available in sufficient quantities, predominantly crusher sand from soft and medium-hard rocks will be used. There are various technological alternatives for producing sand depending on the properties of the rock, the primary grain mix available and the desired flexibility of the plant.

Published in: ZKG INTERNATIONAL - No. 4-2007 (Volume 60)
PDF (202 KB)
Basic principles to plan plants for dry mix mortars
No. 4-2007 (Volume 60)
April 2007

Size: 202 KB

Thin-cake filtration technologies for removing activated carbon, catalysts and other trace solids from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) slurries

PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING

This article discusses the use of thin-cake vertical candle filters and horizontal pressure plate filters as alternatives to manual and conventional filter equipment. These new technologies are described as well as the selection process. The article includes test data and case histories and concludes with a discussion of clean-in-place operations and current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines. ANSI/ISA S88 (and IEC 61512-1 in the international arena) batch process control system standards are also examined for validation. Finally, factory and site acceptance testing is described.

Published in: PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING - JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2007
PDF (255 KB)
Thin-cake filtration technologies for removing activated carbon, catalysts and other trace solids from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) slurries
JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2007
January 2007

Size: 255 KB
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